Living beings need water to keep healthy

a human being can survive (depending on condition)
-> 3-5 days without water (collapse of circulation)
-> more than 14 days without food (could be more than 100 days)

Water and Climate Change

  • higher temperatures and more extreme weather
  • less predicatable weather conditions
  • change of the distribution
    • rainfall, snowmelt, river flows, groundwater
  • more floods
  • severe droughts
  • changes in water availability
  • impact on health and food security
  • trigger for refugee dynamics and political instability

Water, sanitation and health -> closely related
consuming contaminated water -> diarrhoea, typhoid, viral hepatitis A, cholera etc.
low availability of water for personal hygiene -> infections
aquatic environment provides habitat for mosquitos -> diseases like Malaria, Japanese encephalitis
water contaminated with chemicals due to human activities such as industry and mining -> health risk

  • approximately 4 billion cases of diarrhea each year
  • cause 2.2 million deaths, mostly under the age of five

water, sanitation + hygiene interventions  reduce diarrhoeal diseases up to 25-30%
sources: http://www.thewaterpage.com/rivers_regions.htm ,2018;
The United Nations World Water Development Report 2019

Hygienic Strategies
German Toilet Organization (https://www.germantoilet.org/en)

Importance of Handwashing

  • Removing of dirt, oil, microorganisms, smell
  • Killing of pathogens
  • Reduce of diseases like diarrhea, respiratory diseases
  • Reduce of neonatal mortality, if mothers wash there hands regularly

Critical Times for Hand washing

  • 2 most important critical times:
    1.) After „contact“ with faeces (toilet use, changing diaper…)
    2.) Before preparing food or before eating
  • Too many times might be confusing
  • More „critical times“ can be added later

Enabling technologies for handwashing with soap

  • Store and regulate the flow of water in sufficient quantity to facilitate hand washing.
  • Manage or store soap within a household or institution (e.g., school, workplace).
  • Bring together water and soap in one place.
  • It‘s about:
    • Having both hands free
    • Regulated supply of water
    • Not much to be touched to avoid spreading more germs

The “Tippy Tap” is a simple and hygienic device to wash
hands with soap and running water. (http://www.tippytap.org/)

Living with the climate change
Flood Prevention e.g.

  • Rainwater/Stormwater harvesting
  • Sand bags
  • Flood walls
  • Mobile Dikes
  • Floating houses
  • Infrastructure for water retention

Flood sandbags

Tokio Flood protection

Droughts – Prevention of water shortage
protection against drying and extreme water shortage e.g.

  • saving water
  • collecting water
  • rainwater harvesting
  • planting
  • recharge of groundwater
  • increase groundwater level
  • infrastructure for keeping and diverting water

General – Personal Strategies
1. safe water
2. protect water
3. treat water
4. collect water
5. reuse water

More information:
https://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/monitoring/coverage/monitoring-dwater/en/
UN Water (2019): World Water Development Report 2019
https://www.unwater.org/publications/world-water-development-report-2019/
World Water Development Report 2019 - Leaving No One Behind
https://en.unesco.org/themes/water-security/wwap/wwdr/2019